Dirty environment is a threat to any society, it makes us prone to so many types of diseases caused by one infection or the other, carriers such as bacteria, insects and rodents becomes our partners and neighbor even in our homes, offices and our immediate environment. Diseases and infections such as malaria, typhoid, trachoma disease to mention but a few are all caused by dirty, unclean water and polluted air. Among other diseases and infection, we will take trachoma infection as a case study.
Trachoma spreads easily due to negligence on our part. The disease is curtailed if we do what is necessary and put all measures in place to prevent its spread. When there is dirt in our homes, offices, and surroundings, we are directly inviting this dreaded disease to ourselves, our family, and our staff, resulting in unhealthy living.
The disease is a bacterial infectious disease that affects the eye, with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is a public health problem in 37 countries and is responsible for the blindness or visual impairment of about 1.9 million people.
Statistical analysis shows that 158 million people live in trachoma endemic areas and are at risk of contracting the disease of trachoma blindness.
The disease spreads faster because of poor sanitation and hygiene condition. The disease affects the eye majorly and can be transmitted through contact with the eyes or nose of the affected person. The statistic has shown that around 12 million people are affected by Typhoid fever, this infection is caused by salmonella Typhi bacteria which is contracted by consuming contaminated food which may be caused by rodents and insects or water pollution.
At first, trachoma may cause mild itching and irritation of your eyes and eyelids. Then you may notice swollen eyelids and pus draining from the eyes. Untreated trachoma can lead to blindness.
It is the leading preventable cause of blindness worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that nearly 2 million people have been blinded by trachoma. Most blinding trachoma occurs in poor areas of Africa. In areas where trachoma is prevalent, infection rates among children under 5 can be 60 percent or more.
Early treatment may help prevent trachoma complications.
The disease affects the eye, thereby causing various degrees of eye defects. Careful observation should be taken by opticians to be very sure the patient is suffering from the dreaded Trachoma infection before treatment is administered.
- Itching of the eyes and eyelids.
- A white substance is emitted from the eyes containing pus.
- The eyelid rises above normal.
- The inability of victims to withstand light rays.
- Pain and irritation.
Children and women are mostly victims of this infection. Just that the disease metamorphose slowly, more painful symptoms may not emerge until the adult stage is attained.
Stages In The Development Of Trachoma Eye Disease If Contacted.
This consists of intense and follicular inflammation. The intense inflammation In this stage, your eye is now highly infectious and becomes irritated, with a thickening or swelling of the upper eyelid. The follicular inflammation on the other hand beginning in this stage. Five or more follicles, small bumps that contain lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that is visible with magnification on the inner surface of your upper eyelid.
Scars infections lead to scarring of the inner eyelid. The scars often appear as white lines when examined with magnification. Your eyelid may become distorted, vision may not sharp as usual, and may turn in (entropies). The scarred inner lining of your eyelid continues to deform, causing your lashes to turn in so that they rub on and scratch the transparent outer surface of your eye (cornea) which may lead to surgical treatment.
The cornea becomes affected by an inflammation that is most commonly seen under your upper lid. Continual inflammation compounded by scratching from the in-turned lashes leads to clouding of the cornea.
All the signs of trachoma are more severe in your upper lid than in your lower lid. With advanced scarring, your upper lid may show a thick line.
In addition, the lubricating glandular tissue in your lids including the tear-producing glands (lacrimal glands) can be affected. This can lead to extreme dryness, aggravating the problem even more.
Quick and urgent measures should be taken if you or your child has itchy or scary eyes or discharge of white substance from the eyes, especially if you live in or recently traveled to an area where trachoma is common. Trachoma is a contagious disease that can be transmitted through the eyes or nose of an infected person. Early treatment is advisable as soon as possible to help prevent further infections and transmission.
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